Regular Research

Representative Bureaucracy in Nepali Civil Service: Exploring the Encounters of Women
Anil Kumar Gupta, Gobinda Bhandari, and Shushma Manandhar

Representative bureaucracy is a sign of inclusive or democratic governance. Different country of the world including Nepal has adopted different policies to confirm meaningful representation of women in civil service. Civil service organization should be gender-sensitive/friendly legally but in reality, women official's experiences gender influenced behaviors. In this regard, this study explored different encounters of women officials experienced in Nepali civil service. This study employed a qualitative approach where the case study was adopted as a strategy of inquiry. Six information-rich cases were selected purposively and in-depth interviews were carried out. The result of the study showed that invisible gender stereotypes are prevalent in Nepali civil service. Women officials are experiencing gender inclined behaviors because of gender-biased mindset. Despite this, women officials are feeling proud to be a part of civil service, and are prepared to face the gender inclined behavior and qualifying themselves to defense challenges with oozing self-confidence.

Key words: Women, civil service, gender-biased


Does Workforce Diversity Influence Employee Performance? An Empirical Analysis of Nepali Civil Service
Shailendra Prasad Bhatt, Anil Kumar Gupta and Devi Dutta Bhatta

In the last few years, workforce diversity and employee performance have gained intensive attention among policymakers, scholars and management expert all over the world including Nepal. Nepali civil service has become socially and demographically diverse than ever before after the introduction of inclusion policy in 2007 through the second amendment of the Civil Service Act, 1993. In this regard, this study examined the influences of workforce diversity on employee performance. In total 120 civil service employees were interviewed through structured self-administrative questionnaire and data were analyzed by applying descriptive and inferential statistics. Finding showed that civil service employees were more positively perceived in the organizational practices of respecting gender and caste/ethnicity diversity than age diversity. Civil service employee perceived themselves as a performer. However, the level of perceived diversity and performance is varied by their personal/demographic attributes. This study also showed that perceived diversity and performance is significantly positively associated. It is remarkable to note that respecting gender and caste/ethnicity diversity have more influence on performance. Civil service employees who positively perceived organizational practices of respecting diversity are more likely to be a performer than who did not. Hence, this study concludes that workforce diversity has a positive influence on employee performance.

Keywords: Workforce diversity, performance, gender, age and caste/ethnicity


A Two-Level Self-Assessment of Service Quality of Selected Public and Private Hospitals of Nepal Using European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) Model
Raghu Bista, Pramod Niroula and Shailendra Prasad Bhatt

Although there are lots of development and improvement in the health sector of Nepal, the quality measurement of Nepali hospitals is yet to be evaluated and accessed. Quality health service with excellent hospital facilities is prime focus of both public and private sector. There is a need of the study to evaluate
and access continuous improvement in the health sectors including hospitals. In this study, the EFQM model was used to measure the service provider’s perception towards service quality status improvement and management. This study focused on evaluating service quality of selected public and private hospitals of Nepal by using EFQM excellence model originally developed by European Foundation for Quality management (EFQM). This study is a cross-sectional survey carried out using a 57-item questionnaire that focused on two objects: the hospital as a whole and its clinical departments. A total of 36 respondents participated in the study which comprised of senior level and mid-level managers of selected public and private hospitals. The hospitals have been selected using purposive sampling method. From this study, it was found that in each private and public hospitals higher management level perceived that they are in good position in enabler factors than that of middle level manager perceived. It is remarkable to note that private hospitals are toward
positive trend in result criteria than that of public hospital. The overall score under enabler and result criteria across hospitals validates the relationship between enabler factor and result criteria envisioned in the EFQM model because it supports the fact that not better results can be achieved until input (enabler) factors are strong enough to support its result framework. In comparison to the standard EFQM Excellence Model value, it is surprisingly found that the weightage of all enabler factors and value of result criteria of public hospitals are significantly lower.

Keywords: Total quality management, EFQM Model, service quality, enabler factors, result criteria


Determinants of Adult Learning: Analysis Based on End-Term Evaluation of Training Program
Anita Poudel, Shiva Hari Adhikari and Shilu Pradhan

Adult learning is understood beyond the acquisition of knowledge and behavioral change. Training helps to develop knowledge, skills and behavioral change. Adult learners focus more on learning process and are characterized by goal orientation. They connect their past experience with their current knowledge base and activities and try to judge about the usefulness of the training program. And, if they found the knowledge as useful in their current job situation or in future endeavor, they pay attention towards the subject matter and be satisfied with the training program and feel that the program was useful. This study attempts to explore the determinants that impact adult learning by utilizing quantitative data that are compiled from the ‘End-Term Evaluation Questionnaire’ of the training programs conducted by Capacity Development Resource Center during November 2015 to November 2018. In total, feedback/reaction level evaluations of 1025 participants are considered as the input to analyze the determinants of adult learning. Primarily, three components named instructional controlled/training methods, informal learning environment and others have been identified as independent variables, adult learning being dependent variable. Under instructional controlled/training methods, four factors - interactive lecture, group exercise, field visit and simulation – have been encompassed. An exploratory study on the variables indicated that six variables out of eight having significant impact on adult learning. Appropriateness of lecture, organization of training, perception on relevancy of subject dealt, logical presentation of subject matter, group  exercise/exercise and field visit are found to have a positive relationship with adult learning. However, the two dummy variables (i.e. simulation
as a methodology used and informal learning environment) are found to be insignificant in determining the adult learning.

Ethics as Value Proposition and Its Sustenance among Officials of the Government of Nepal: Analysis Based on 31st Batch of Basic Administration Training
Shiva Hari Adhikari, Geetanjali Upadhyaya and Ashrita Dhital

Civil service is a service of public trust. Civil servants or bureaucrats adhering to ethics and morality-based value help in generating substantial public trust. The context in which Nepal’s civil service is being operated in a continuous change. The promulgation of new constitution and the full operation of 761 governments of Nepal have provided great opportunity for the civil servants or bureaucrats in serving the citizens as per the aspirations of the Constitution and values of Nepali civil service. Realizing the importance of value and its commitment with the aim of making civil service trustworthy, Nepal Administrative Staff College (NASC) initiated ‘value commitment program’ as one of the key programs of Basic Administration Training (BAT). The ‘value commitment program’ was first introduced in the 31st BAT in 2017. NASC engaged all the 31st BAT trainee officers collectively in generating the values on their own through participative process. By doing so, NASC believed that they will adhere to it throughout their professional and personal life. It has already been
two years since the ‘value commitment program’ and the researchers believed it is the right time to assess whether they abide by the values which they collectively proposed and committed. Considering all these, this study tried to identify what do the government officials of 31st BAT value most in their profession at this point of time. By doing so, we analyzed whether any change has been occurred in their proposition at the beginning of service period and now. By employing mixed method of data collection, this study surveyed 126 officers from 31st BAT and data analysis has been done accordingly. Officers are found to be enthusiastic in adhering to the values in their work place and personal life and bringing changes at organizational and individual levels.
They tried to be positive towards any situations and problems and kept on delivering services to the service receivers. The research team found that use of information and communication technology has helped officers in being citizen friendly and transparent. However, we discovered that officers generally fear taking even reasonable risks and blame the socio-political landscape which restricted them being a change agent.


Role of Intermediary in Public Service Delivery: A Case Study of Transport Management Office, Ekantakuna, Lalitpur
Roshani Bhujel, Pritha Paudyal, Pramod Niroula

This paper attempts to assess the relations among service seeker, service provider and intermediary at Transport Management Office, Ekantakuna, Lalitpur. The triangulation of relationship among these value chains actors in service delivery process were assessed through in-depth interviews which comprised of
independent set of semi-structured questionnaire as a checklist each for service seeker, service provider and intermediary. Further, to validate the information obtained from the interview, research team also approached intermediary as a perspective service seeker who was in urgent need of license renewal. The findings of the study reflected that the presence of intermediary in service delivery process matters in terms of facilitation to both the service seeker and service provider in highly different levels. The extent of facilitation has been found to be the matter of subjective discourse despite of the fact that it is only the single nature of service (license issuance and renewal).

Keywords: intermediary, service seeker, service provider, value chain actors, service delivery process


Role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Education in ICT Entrepreneurship Development in Nepal
Shital Moktan Tamang and Sushil Thapa

Information and Communication Technology helps to connect with the rest of the world and opens up wide range of opportunities for businesses. ICT entrepreneurs are a blend of tech entrepreneurs and online entrepreneurs who develop products and services by using ICT technologies. The products and services may be catered to the clients through the use of internet and cloud computing technologies. ICT entrepreneurs perform entrepreneurial activities related to core ICT areas such as software, hardware, networking or online businesses. Nepal is following the path towards increasing ICT entrepreneurship activities. Businesses such as Hamro Bazaar, Daraz, Foodmandu, eSewa etc. are leading Nepalese business to another level and generating employment opportunities for the youths of Nepal. With many ICT startups emerging in Nepal, it is not known whether the ICT entrepreneurs are influenced to start up their business because they have some training or educational degree in the field of ICT or because the market is driving them despite their area of study.
Thus, this paper analyzes whether there is a role of ICT education in ICT entrepreneurship development in Nepal. The paper also tries to analyze whether the ICT entrepreneurs perceive the government policies and practices as supportive for doing ICT businesses. The study followed explanatory sequential mixed method, and semi-structured survey questionnaire and interview was used as data collection tools. The study revealed that ICT entrepreneurs have either an academic degree or specialized training on ICT or both. The courses are seen as a catalyst for influencing or motivating factors for start-up of ICT businesses. However, they perceive that having only academic degree on ICT is not sufficient. Specialized trainings are preferred for starting up successful ICT business. ICT entrepreneurs do not perceive the ICT policies and physical infrastructure environment to be conducive as expected for conducting ICT business. However, they recognize that the government is trying to gradually improve the scenario. They agree that there has been a significant change
in Nepal in the past few years thus, supporting ICT entrepreneurship to flourish in Nepal.

Keywords: ICT entrepreneurship, ICT startups, ICT scholars, ICT, Entrepreneurship


Towards Engaged Civil Service: Employee Engagement Survey, 2019
Basanta Raj Sigdel, Shailaja Upadhyaya and Damodar Basyal

Actively engaged workforce is need of the day in civil service that drives effective service delivery to the citizens as envisioned in the constitution and the new system of governance in Nepal. Studies show that civil service can achieve excellence by efficiently and effectively increasing their employee engagement (Ruyle, 2009). Though a lot of research has been carried out in the area of engagement, there remains paucity of academic literature regarding status of employee engagement, and its drivers in the context of Nepalese public sector. The research aimed at measuring level of employee engagement in Nepali civil service and identifying key drivers of employee engagement. Following descriptive deign, the study utilized work of Schaufeli (2002) in seven-point scale to measure status of employee engagement in three major dimensions of engagement-Vigour, Dedication and Absorption. The study based on questionnaire survey among 139 officers in 21 different ministries of the Government of Nepal and constitutional bodies. The study finds “Average” level engagement of civil service with mean score of 4.66 in seven-point scale in three major domains of employee engagement. The study also finds that employee engagement is positively correlated with the age of employees, level of educational qualification, service period. Interestingly, employee engagement is higher for technical employees as compared to the non-technical ones. The study analyzed three driver domains- personal factors, human resource practice and work environment that explains degree of engagement in Nepali civil service. The research depicts that personal factors comprising of locus of control, learning attitude and work ethics have highest degree of correlation with employee engagement making it the major determinant or the
key driver of employee engagement for the civil servants of Nepal. Similarly, human resource practices and work environment respectively explain the degree of employee engagement.

Keywords: Employee engagement, civil service, human resource